Welcome to this Academic Skills Centre Video,
Introduction to Referencing. This short video will look at why you should
reference, what you should reference and when. It will also explore the terminology used
when talking about referencing. For example, what is the difference between a bibliography
and a reference list? And what is meant by the Author-Date Style? Referencing is very important. It enables
you to acknowledge your sources. To support your argument with evidence and it enables
the reader of your work to track down and refer to those sources. Referencing is good academic practice as it
shows how much research you have done. It boosts your credibility and demonstrates your
integrity. If you follow good academic practice by good
referencing, you will avoid being accused of plagiarism. Plagiarism which is defined as presenting
somebody else’s work as your own whether intentionally or unintentionally is a serious offence at
University. There are two main styles of referencing.
The Author-Date style, also known as Harvard and the Numbering style also known as Vancouver.
There are other styles as well. For example, Law has its own style called OSCOLA. Within each main style there are many variations.
At the University of Birmingham Cite Them Right Harvard is the recommended style but
your School or Department may prefer you to use another version or another style altogether.
Therefore the first thing you must do is check which style you should use. You should reference a direct quote, a paraphrase
of something you have read, an image, map, table or graph from a book or a journal article
from the open web. In short, just about everything. There is no need to reference ‘common knowledge’
such as the fact that the Queen is the Head of State of Great Britain or that William
Shakespeare was born on the 26th April 1564. Think of your reference as a recipe. Have
you got all the right ingredients in the right order? Citations are used within your text wherever
resources are referred to or directly quoted. In Harvard this will be in the form of the
author’s surname and the publication date in brackets. With Vancouver style this will
be a number. The reference appears in the reference list
or bibliography at the end of your paper. The format will vary depending on the type
of source; whether it’s a book, a chapter in an edited book, a journal article or website
but generally at the very least it will include the author, the publication date and the title. In this example using the Harvard style, the
citation has been integrated into the flow of the sentence. The corresponding entry into the reference
list has all of the information you require to track down the article. A reference list is all the works you have
cited in your paper. On the other hand a bibliography lists all the works you have cited plus every
other work that you have consulted but not mentioned. In summary make sure you know which style
to use and be consistent.